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Test Code VIP Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP), Plasma

Performing Laboratory

Mayo Medical Laboratories in Rochester

Reporting Name

Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide,P

Specimen Type

Plasma EDTA

Specimen Required

Collection Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Fasting (8 hours)

2. Spin down and immediately freeze.

Additional Information: This test should not be requested on patients who have recently received radioactive material.

Reject Due To


Mild OK; Gross reject


Mild OK; Gross reject


Mild OK; Gross OK



Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Plasma EDTA Frozen 90 days

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.55 mL

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday, Wednesday; 2 p.m.

Specimen Retention Time

3 months

Analytic Time

3 days

Reference Values

<75 pg/mL

Useful For

Detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide producing tumors in patients with chronic diarrheal diseases

Method Name

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VIP Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide,P 3125-2


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
8150 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide,P 3125-2

Clinical Information

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was originally isolated from porcine small intestine and was recognized by its potent vasodilator activity. This brain/gut hormone has widespread distribution and is present in neuronal cell bodies localized in the central nervous system, digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts, exocrine glands, and thyroid and adrenal glands. VIP has a wide scope of biological actions. The main effects of VIP include relaxation of smooth muscle (bronchial and vascular dilation), stimulation of gastrointestinal water and electrolyte secretion, and release of pancreatic hormones.


VIP-producing tumors (VIPomas) are rare; most (90%) are located in the pancreas. Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria are key symptoms.


Values >75 pg/mL may indicate the presence of an enteropancreatic tumor causing hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP).


Values >200 pg/mL are strongly suggestive of VIP-producing tumors (VIPoma).


VIPoma is unlikely with a 24-hour stool volume <700 mL.


This test should not be requested in patients who have recently received radioisotopes, therapeutically or diagnostically, because of potential assay interference. A recommended time period before collection cannot be made because it will depend on the isotope administered, the dose given and the clearance rate in the individual patient. Specimens will be screened for radioactivity prior to analysis. Radioactive samples received in the laboratory will be held and assayed after the radioactivity has sufficiently decayed. This will result in a test delay.

Clinical Reference

1. Ghaferi AA, Chojnacki KA, Long WD, et al: Pancreatic VIPomas: subject review and one institutional experience. J Gastrointest Surg 2008 Feb;12(2):382-393

2. Soga J, Yakuwa Y: Vipoma/diarrheogenic syndrome: a statistical evaluation of 241 reported cases. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1998 Dec;17(4):389-400

3. Smith SL, Branton SA, Avino AJ, et al: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secreting islet cell tumors: a 15-year experience and review of the literature. Surgery 1998 Dec;124(6):1050-1055 (Review)

Method Description

A radioimmunoassay technique is used. Highly purified synthetic human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) obtained from Peninsula Laboratories is used as a standard and is also treated with Na-(125)I for use as a labeled antigen. Anti-VIP antibody is produced in rabbits to an antigen prepared by coupling natural VIP from the Karolinska Institute to bovine serum albumin. The antiserum obtained shows no cross reactivity to secretin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, peptide histidine methionine, glucagon, and motilin up to and including concentrations of 10 ng/mL.(Yaksh TL, Michener SR, Bailey JE, et al: Survey of distribution of substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, metenkephalin, bombesin and PHI in the spinal cord of cat, dog, sloth, and monkey. Peptides 1988;9:357-372)